A urinalysis is helpful in diagnosing and monitoring various diseases and metabolic disturbances as well as providing information on the hydration status of an animal and kidney function.

  • Urine pH: This value indicates the acid-base status of the urine (assuming the animal is well-hydrated). Acid-base status can be affected by the pH of food ingested, the presence of bacteria, and genetics.
  • Sp Gravity: Indicates the kidneys’ ability to concentrate the urine. Higher values may indicate dehydration, while lower values may indicate diseases that cause excessive water consumption and urination, such as kidney insufficiency.
  • Protein: Large amounts of protein may indicate kidney disease (healthy kidneys are able to filter proteins out of the urine).
  • Glucose: The presence of glucose in the urine is usually indicative of high blood glucose levels and can be found in uncontrolled diabetic patients.
  • Bili (bilirubin): High levels of bilirubins may indicate liver disease.
  • Blood: Indicates the presence of blood in the urine. This can occur in the presence of bladder or kidney stones, infection, and urinary crystals.
  • Bacteria: Indicates the presence of bacteria in the urine, which is generally associated with infection.
  • Mucus: Indicates the presence of mucus in the urine; often associated with infection.
  • WBC (white blood cells): High levels of WBCs may indicate inflammation in the urinary tract
  • RBC: Blood in the urine can be a sign of inflammation, infection, or trauma.
  • Crystal Type: Indicates the presence and type of crystals in the urine. In dogs, crystalluria can be a normal finding.

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